Issued by the
Authority of the Minister of the Interior,
Ottawa, Canada, 1909
Farmers, Farm Labourers and
Female Domestic Servants are the
only people whom the Canadian
Immigration Department advises
to go to Canada.
All others should get definite
assurance of employment in
Canada before leaving home, and
have money enough to support
them for a time in case of
The proper time to reach
Canada is between the beginning
of April and the end of September,
although female domestic servants
are sure of securing positions at
once irrespective of the time of
year they reach Canada.
Canada Wants Domestic Servants
In Canada as elsewhere the question of domestic
service has become one of vast importance. The
recent census, 1901, reveals an ever growing excess
of males over females of no less a number than
150,000, and as in the case of all new countries which
look to immigration for increase of population, this
condition is likely to be maintained, owing to the fact
that the number of male immigrants arriving is
almost three times that of the female sex. And this in
spite of the fact that in Canada unemployed women
are an unknown quantity, and that from the
Atlantic to the Pacific the same complaint is made
that there are not enough women.
The numerous requests for domestic servants
which are daily received at the different agencies of
the Immigration Department throughout the Domin-
ion, the applications which are constantly being
made for this class of help at employment bureaus
by ladies desiring same and the large number of
advertisements for domestics daily appearing in the
city papers there, prove conclusively that there is no
scarcity of vacant positions. The domestic servant
problem is to-day one of the most serious questions
which the Canadian ladies have to deal with and it
would be beneficial alike to the employer and em-
ployee if a large number of female domestics should
decide at once to emigrate to the Dominion. For
the twelve months ending June 30, 1904, 1905, 1906
and 1907, the number of domestics arriving in
Canada from the British Isles has been 2,523, 3,889,
4,467 and 5,245 respectively, but this number would
not have a noticeable effect In decreasing the
demand even if all had remained in service, while as
a matter of fact a very large percentage enter the
matrimonial state shortly after their arrival and in
turn become themselves mistresses requiring help in
their household duties.
In Canada the extremes of poverty and of wealth
characteristic of older communities in Europe do
not exist, and a high standard of living and of well-
being generally is widespread. While there
many wealthy families throughout Canada, the
demand for domestic help is confined to the class
known as " general servants." The wages for this
class in Canadian cities are much higher than in
England and the demand is unlimited.
It must be borne in mind that Canadian house-
holds where general servants are employed are quite
differently arranged from English houses, as different
in internal economy as English and French homes
in the same class. In Canada the duties of a general
servant are varied. Mechanical aids to save labor
are in general use. There are technical schools in
all the cities where servants may learn cooking free,
and they are allowed to attend them on certain
evenings in the week, by their employers.
FEMALE FARM SERVANTS.
Female farm servants are highly paid and the
demand is very urgent in the eastern townships of
Quebec, throughout Ontario, and especially in Mani-
toba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia.
The female farm servant is expected in addition to
the usual indoor work, to do bread making and
butter making. Among the attractions which these
openings offer to women Is the usual pleasant
equality of the relations which generally prevail on
farms between employed and employers and their
CLASSES FOR WHICH DEMAND IS SMALL.
The demand for governesses is very small, and no
one should go to Canada with the expectation of
obtaining such a position unless a situation has first
been secured before sailing. Female telephone
clerks, typists, stenographers and telegraph clerks
are little in request outside the local supply. Situa-
tions can sometimes be secured for lady-helps,
where the young ladies will be treated as one of the
family, but as such positions are not numerous
arrangements regarding situation should be made
before embarking for Canada.
Wages — A " general " servant is paid in Eastern
Canada from $6 (£1 5s.) to $15 (£3) a month; in
Western Canada from $10 (£2) to $20 (£4). Cooks
are paid from $12 (£2 10s.) to $20 (£4) per month
except in hotels and restaurants, where they com-
mand higher wages; housemaids from $8 (£1 12s.)
to $12 (£2 8s.), nurses the same. Many young girls
obtain employment as nursemaids. These girls go
to their homes at night and are paid from $5 (£1)
to $7 (£1 8s.). Laundresses command good wages,
earning from $16 (£3 4s.) to $20 (£4), but this is
in a way skilled labor. The domestic servant has
her washing, fond and light, her wages are clear
gain, her only expense being in connection with
LOCAL, WOMEN'S ORGANIZATIONS.
The National Council of Women of Canada,
founded in 1893 by Lady Aberdeen, has done very
much to organize, in connection with their local
Councils throughout the country, ladies' committees
for the protection and welfare of those engaged in
domestic service and other female callings, and as a
consequence, excellent arrangements exist for
receiving and placing those who may go out to
Canada for thse purposes. This body is affiliated
and co-operates with all the principal women's
organizations in Canada.
GOVERNMENT IMMIGRATION SERVICE.
In addition rnusi be mentioned the arrangements
made by the Immigration service of the Dominion
Government, with responsible officials stationed at
various points throughout the country. Domestic
servants should go at once on their arrival to the
nearest Government agent. These gentlemen will
give the best and most reliable advice gratis; they
have in their offices a list of vacant situations, and
will refer applicants to the local ladies' committee,
so that they may have the benefit of such supervi-
sion and guidance until they are satisfactorily placed.
Servants should take their credentials with them, as
good records are indispensable in Canada. They
may safely go out at any time of the year and be
certain of obtaining situations at once.
POUTS OE LANDING.
Emigrants are advised to travel by one of the
Canadian steamship lines. Booking agents for the
different steamship lines will upon application supply
lists giving dates of sailing. During the winier
months the vessels arrive at Halifax and St. John
and during the summer at Quebec and Montreal.
CENTRES OF EMPLOYMENT.
The chief centres in the various Provinces may
be generally stated as follows. As will he observed
on pages 4 and B, there is a general tendency of
wages to rise gradually as one proceeds from the
east to the wesl
Nova Scotia. — Halifax, where there is, in propor-
tion to its size, a large demand for domestic-
servants, is a garrison town.
New Brunswick. — St. John, the principal town,
has an important immigration committee of the
National Council of Women, which will assist female
immigrants to find domestic work.
Quebec — Montreal is the largest city of Canada,
with 375,000 inhabitants. Tin: 'average wages here
are higher than anywhere else in the eastern part
of the Dominion, and trained servants will find a
large field of employment.
Ontario. — Toronto is the second largest city of
Canada, with a population of 315,000. The demand
for domestic servants of all kinds is very constant,
wages reaching a high average. Other important
towns in this Province, from the point of view of
domestic servants, are Hamilton, London, Kingston,
and Ottawa, the capital of the Dominion.
Manitoba. — Winnipeg is the chief centre of this,
the prairie district of the Dominion, with a popula-
tion of 120,000. Brandon (13,000), Portage la
Prairie, and other towns in the Province, are grow-
ing up rapidly, and offer a good field for domestic
servants, with higher wages generally than in the
east. At Winnipeg there is a Girls' Home of Wel-
come, which is referred to in detail on page 7.
Saskatchewan. — In this Province, Regina, Moose-
jaw, Saskatoon, Battleford and Prince Albert are
the principal centres and they along with the smaller
towns not mentioned all offer good openings for
Alberta. — Edmonton is the capital of this Province
and has a population of about 12,000. Calgary with
a slightly larger population is situated on the main
line of the Canadian Pacific Railway. In both these
cities there is a large demand for female servants,
as is also the case in smaller centres such as Leth-
bridge, Red Deer, Wetaskiwin and Strathcona.
British Columbia. — In this the most westerly
Province of Canada, the towns of Vancouver. New
Westminster and Victoria, offers many openings for
domestic servants with an exceptionally high average
CANADIAN SOCII.TIKS INTERESTED IN
National Council of Women of Canada, with 21
Local Councils throughout the Dominion, maintains
Immigration Committees at the majority of its
centres, working in affiliation with other Canadian
women's organizations in almost every city of the
country, such as the Young Women's Christian
Association, The Women's Christian Temperance
Union, The Girls' Friendly Society of Canada, The
Dominion Order of the King's Daughters, etc., etc.
Women's National Immigration Society, Montreal,
87 Osborne Street. Managed by a matron and secre-
tary under the direction of a committee of ladies.
Founded in 1882 and supported by annual grants
from the Dominion and Provincial Governments.
Object: to afford a shelter to all respectable women
emigrants, irrespective of sect and nationality. Emi-
grants on arriving in Montreal are allowed twenty-
four hours' free board and lodging. On returning
to the home, or making a longer stay, a reasonable
charge is made, of $2.50 (10s.) per week, or forty
cents (Is. 8d.) per day. A registry undertakes the
placing of immigrants if they desire it. This
society is in communication with the Local Councils
of Women of Canada, who kindly undertake to assist
immigrants going to other towns in the Dominion.
Andrew's Home, M lielmont Park, Montreal
Home established by the Tiishop of Montreal for the
object of assisting and guiding employment of
English emigrants. It is managed by a House Com-
mittee under the direction of a corporation composed
of gentlemen of the city. Home is for both sexes.
Young Women's Christian Association of Canada,
with branches in 25 centres, and with boarding
homes and employment bureaus at Halifax, Quebec,
Montreal, Toronto, Kingston, Ottawa, Hamilton,
Brantford, Peterborough, Calgary, Vancouver and
Girls' Friendly Society of Canada, Canadian
branch of the parent Society in England. Church of
England organization with 22 branches. The Toronto
Council is the chief centre where information can
be obtained as to the introduction of members from
other countries by means of letters of commendation.
Girls' Horn.- of Welcome, Winnipeg 1 , Austin street.
Founded by Miss O. L. Fowler, 1897, and supported
with the help of Government grant and subscrip-
tiona. The home is managed by a Board of Directors,
consisting of 36 ladies, and aided by an Advisory
Board of seven gentlemen. Object: To afford a
shelter to respectable girls and women. Registry
office attached. This is the home to which, the
National Immigration Society sends Its girls and
women in Winnipeg.
Toronto Hostel (Miss FitzGibbon In charge), 66
Wellesley St.. Toronto.
Calgary Hostel (Miss Ryall in charge), 120 Fourth
Avenue West, Calgary.
WHAT CANADA OFFERS.
1. A healthy climate.
2. A country where law and order are most strictly
observed and enforced.
3. A system of education and educational institu-
tions equal to those of any other country.
4. Churches of various denominations, which are
established even in new districts as rapidly as the
country is settled.
5. The fullest recognition of civil and religious
There is also the fact which must appeal to settlers
from the United Kingdom, that Canada is British
territory, and that those who make their home in
the Dominion maintain their birthright, their
allegiance, and their flag, remaining British subjects
in every sense of the term.
STEAMSHIP LINES TO CANADA.
The Steamship Lines carrying emigrants to
Canadian Ports are the Allan Bros., J. & A. Allan.
Canadian Pacific. White Star-Dominion and Donald-
son. The principal points from which they sail are
Liverpool, London, Glasgow and Londonderry. They
arrive at the Canadian Ports of Halifax, St. John,
Quebec or Montreal, and in some cases during winter
months, at the United States Port of Portland,
Maine. Generally speaking. Halifax and St. John
are the ports of arrival from November 15th to May
1st. and Quebec and Montreal from May 1st to
The rates for passage are regulated by the steam-
ship companies and are subject to change, but full
details can, at all times, be obtained by consulting
the sailing lists published, or by interviewing any
booking agent In the United Kingdom.
HOW TO SECURE A SITUATION
The Immigration Department has appointed a
large number of Canadian Government employment
agents in Ontario to secure situations for farm
labourers and domestic servants. These agents are
well acquainted in the vicinities in which they are at
work and will so far as possible see that all emi-
grants going to them are well plated, but it must be
distinctly remembered that they will not interest
themselves in those desiring situations as clerks,
mechanics or any other occupations outside of farm
labourers or domestic servants.
A domestic servant proceeding to Ontario should
ask the booking agent from whom she purchases her
ticket for a list showing the names and addresses of
the agents mentioned above; she should then select
one of the places at which an agent resides and
purchase her transportation to that point. The
booking agent will immediately notify the Govern-
ment Employment Agent as to the date upon which
she intends to commence her journey so that upon
arrival at her destination a suitable situation will
have been selected for her.
Those desiring situations in Nova Scotia should
apply to F. W. Annand, Dominion Government
Immigration Agent, Halifax. N.S. Those wishing to
remain in New Brunswick may secure positions by
applying to J. V. Lantalum, Dominion Government
Immigration Agent, St. John, N.B. Dr. J. P. Lavoie,
Immigration Agent at Quebec, P.Q., or John
Hoolahan, Immigration Agent at Montreal, will place
all domestics who wish positions in the Province of
Quebec, while those going to or west of Winnipeg
should apply to J. Bruce Walker, Commissioner of
Immigration. Winnipeg, Manitoba, who has always
a large list of vacancies for domestic servants in the
LETTERS PROM SATISFIED DOMESTICS
The following three letters from domestics who
have succeeded in Canada are fair samples of
thousands of the same class which are yearly written
to the Immigration Branch, to booking agents and
to friends remaining In the old land.
PARIS STATION, ONT.
I came from Pollockshields, Glasgow. I had been
a general servant in a private house in that district
for 2]A years. My wages, per month, were £1 10s.
I belong to Ireland; my home is there and my father
keeps a small farm. I worked for three years In a
farm house there before I came to Glasgow.
1 must say that I like Canada very well. I would
strongly advise any person I know to come to this
country and I intend to encourage them to be pre-
pared for next spring. It is such a beautiful country
and I must say that they have a far better method
of working than the Old Country folks. I like my
situation very well; the people I am staying with
are so kind. My wages here are $8.00 per month.
(Signed), AGNES McGURRIN.
BROCKVILLE, ONT., CANADA.
Having been asked to write a few lines as to how
I like Canada. Well, I came here from Galashiels,
in the County of Selkirk, in Scotland. I was in a
hotel there, and I find Canada a much better place
in every way than the Old Country. Servants are
much better treated here than they are at home and
wages are much better, and there seems to be a
great demand for domestic servants out here, espe-
cially if they can cook a little. A good cook gets a
good wage out here. Of course, there are some
things that are a little different than at home, but
one soon learns if they are willing. Of course, only
being out here a few months I cannot say very much
about the place as yet, but would advise any girl if
she wants a good place and a good home to come to
Canada, and everything seems to be done to save
labour. I have got a good place and there are manj
such iu be found here, so if any girl would like to
come to Canada, she should come out at once.
(Signed), JEAN CAMPBELL,
Cr. Col. Wm. Cole,
Brockville, Ont., Can.
Just a line or two to let you know how I am get-
ting on since I came out to Virden in the spring. 1
like Canada very much, and can't write too highly
about the people in the district, they are all so kind
to us strangers. There are fifteen of the girls who
came out on the "Corinthian" round about Virden,
and all liking it well. Virden is a tine clean little
town and one man or woman is considered as good
It is about the way I was treated lately when 1
was ill that I wish to tell you particularly. I was
in a situation and took typhoid fever and I don't
know who was the kindest to me. 1 was sent to
the hospital at Brandon by the St. Andrew's Society
of Virden, who got a semi-private ward for me and
when I was better they paid off the hospital and
doctors' expenses and the Government paid the rest,
so I was not out one cent. It was almost good to be
ill to see people so kind, for although the doctor
would not allow visitors, the Brandon ladies sent
in the most lovely flowers to me and nearly every
day some one was telephoning and enquiring for me.
I am all right again and able for work.
There are far more people wanting help than
there are girls for. I would like so much for my
two sisters to come in the spring. Three of the
Edinburgh girls who came out with me are in Bran-
don. I got my baggage all right and we had a nice
trip out. I have been long in writing to tell you how
I am getting on, but time passes so quickly. Be-
(Signed), AN.VIE CAMERON.
LETTERS FROM SATISFIED EMPLOYERS
The Immigration Department in Canada, with the
object of ascertaining the satisfaction given by im-
migrants, frequently writes to the employer of such
help and the following are samples of the replies re-
ceived concerning domestic servants : —
45 Pape Avenue, TORONTO, Ont.
Alice Boorman came to us on July 20 of this year.
She is a good, thoroughly reliable girl and is giving
entire satisfaction. Her wages are fifteen dollars a
Though you have only asked about Alice, I would
like to tell you that we have another servant (house-
maid) who came from England last year and who is
equally good and capable. Her wages — fifteen' dol-
Very sincerely yours,
(Signed), MRS. A. L. MACDONALD.
36 Dale Avenue, TORONTO, Ont.
Emma Keys has only been out a month. So far I
have found her a very nice girl, very willing and
anxious to please. I am paying her $15.00 as cook.
I should say she was a very good class of immi-
grant and there is plenty of room for more of the
(Signed), LOUISE LOCKHART.
174 Jamleson Aj-enue, TORONTO, Ont.
Mary Alcock came to me last May; is still with
me, giving splendid satisfaction. She is capable,
conscientious and thoroughly trustworthy, physically
strong and morally all that could be desired.
(Signed), HELEN CAMPBELL.
142 Cherrier Street, MONTREAL, Que.
W. D. Scott, Esq., Ottawa:
Dear Sir,— Hannah Bowler has been in my service
for five months. She is a very good conscientious
servant, and I am well pleased wild her. She is
receiving at present twelve dollars per month and is
very saving. She has induced three of her friends to
join her in Canada and they are all doing well.
Yours very sincerely,
(Signed), MRS. M. RUTLEDGE.
W. D. Scott, Esq.., Ottawa:
Dear Sir,— Mrs. Farley is well pleased with Miss
Montgomery. She is a splendid fine girl and does
her work thoroughly and well. She worked two
weeks for $2 per week and Mrs. Farley was so well
suited with her that she raised her wages to $2.50
(Signed) H. FARLEY, M.D.
467 Cote St. Antoine Rcl., WESTMOUNT, Que.
Dear Sir: . .
You are quite right in your information. Lizzie
Dann came to us as a domestic on the 11th of April
and remained with us until the 11th of September,
when she was married to George Bathe, a young
Englishman who came out on the same ship. Lizzie
was a most satisfactory and capable girl and we
were extremely sorry to lose her.
(Signed) W .E. FOSTER.
Dear Sir: , _ ...
Mary A Fraser has been with me since June 5th
this year. We pay her $6.00 per month thus far, but
expect to give her $7.00 in the spring if she remains
She gives fair satisfaction; is not very accustomed
to farm work, but is willing to learn. She is very
trusty and honorable, which we prize highly with a
family of bovs and girls such as we have. We trust
we may be able to keep her for some time to come.
(Signed), J. W. CREWS.
W. D. Scott, Supt of Immigration, Ottawa.
169 Madison Avenue, TORONTO, Ont.
W. I>. Scott, Esq.. Superintendent of Immigration:
Dear Sir. -Rachel Sampson Is still with us us
domestic. We find her willing, honest and trust-
worthy. .She knew little or none of domestic work
On arrival, but has learnt quickly. We give her
twelve dollars a month. Believe me,
(Signed), A. MACKELLAR.
CARLETON PLACE. ONTARIO.
Dear Sir :
Replying to the above, the girl Lizzie Hobart,
worked fur me one month on her arrival from the
old country, am! 1 found her one of the most
thorough servants in our 40 years experience. As her
mother and sister found employment in Ottawa she
left for there on the expiration of her month's en-
gagement. I paid her $10.00 per month.
Q-irls of this style. 1 am certain could And employ-
ment in any town or city in Canada at the very high-
est wages obtained.
(Sign.. 1 i. JNO. D. CRAM.
CANADIAN GOVERNMENT AGENTS.
Intending emigrants would do well, before de-
ciding upon the particular locality to which to go, to
consult one of the Canadian Government Agents in
the United Kingdom, who will, without charge, freely
give, either personally or by letter, full and reliable
details regarding any point, upon which intending
emigrants desire information. The following is a
list of the Canadian Government Agents in the
United Kingdom :
Mr. J. Obed Smith, Assistant Superintendent of
Emigration, 11-12 Charing Cross, London, S.W.
Mr. A. P; Jury. Old Castle Bldgs., Preeson's Row.
Mr. G. H. Mitchell, 139 Corporation Street, Bir-
Mr. Alex. McOwan, 81 Queen Street, Exeter.
Mr. L. Burnett, 16 Parliament Street, York.
Mr. Malcolm Mclntyre, 35-37 St. Enoch Square,
Mr. John McLennan, 26 Guild Street, Aberdeen.
Mr. John Webster, 17-19 Victoria Street, Belfast.
Mr. Edward O'Kelly, 44 Dawson Street, Dublin.
No fees charged by Government Agents.
The Canadian Immigration Department desires
emigrants and booking agents to distinctly under-
stand that it Is not responsible for any statements
made by Employment Bureaus or others In the
United Kingdom, apart from those contained In
printed pamphlets or circulars of the Department.
Farmers, Farm Labourers, and Female Domestic
Servants are the only people whom the Canadian
Immigr ation Department advises to go to Canada.
AH others should get definite assurance of employ-
ment in Canada before leaving homo, and have
money enough to support them for a time in case of
The proper time to reach Canada i- between the
beginning or April and the cud or September.